China Teapots of the 1700s: Are They Still Chinese?

In the Beginning . . . Quality was Already Second-Rate

Right from that first porcelain teapot made by China (see earlier post) for the Europeans:

export tea ware was designed specifically for the Western market

(and yes, that meant a lower quality of porcelain—partly just to meet demand),

particularly because 16th- and 17th-century-Europeans seemed more concerned about teapot design—and the status it embodied—than about how the tea tasted in the pot.

The Chinese, after all, preferred using porous stoneware teapots, which slightly retained tea’s aroma and flavor.

So porcelain teapots, in both shape and ornamentation, quickly and increasingly reflected Western preferences.

While the Europeans, Too, Looked to Maximize Profits

For their part, 18th-century-European merchants did all they could to streamline the process of ordering/shipping/selling tea ware.*

The goal, after all, was to make money.teacup

  • Simple and sturdy ware meant fewer errors in orders and less breakage during shipping
  • Traditional Chinese handle-less cups were easily stackable (like the modern example shown here), meaning they could be efficiently stowed in ships
  • It was easier to add ornamentation than to order complex shapes

Tea and Coffee for the Masses—So the Elite Drank Chocolate

As tea and coffee became more available, prices dropped—making tea and coffee more accessible to the middle class—but that third new European drink remained an elite beverage.

Therefore, savvy merchants commissioned chocolate cups with handles.* These more breakable cups obviously could command higher prices.

The Point of a Saucer, Necessitating New Rules for Drinking Tea

Meanwhile, the absence of a handle on teacups—and the presence of a deep saucer—informed tea drinking etiquette.

First off, a saucer was useful to hold that tea-spoon (see teaspoon post).

Second, because gracefully holding a thin porcelain cup filled with steaming hot liquid was liable to be really challenging, people held the saucer instead. And poured tea into the saucer to cool it. And drank directly from the saucer.

Eventually the upper classes wanted to re-distinguish themselves from everyone else: drinking from the saucer became gauche.

By 1760, tea and coffee cups with handles were in style, although scholar Shirley Mueller has tea sets from as early as the 1740s that include handled coffee cups.

Teapots Become Totally Westernized

As more people could and did drink tea, teacups and teapots grew larger. Designs became more ornate and featured entirely Western shapes and motifs—as beautifully demonstrated by Mueller’s collection:

1700s teapots

detail of 1790 teapot
grate in spout

And Design Flaws Remedied

And that pesky problem with the tea leaves clogging the teapot spout?

As teapot design evolved, a web or grate—with an increasing number of holes—separated the body from the spout. This kept the tea leaves in the pot while allowing the liquid to easily flow through the spout.§

The Westernized China Teapot

The imported china or porcelain teapot of the late 1700s was a very different thing than those first teapots that delighted the Europeans.

As Mueller puts it:**

What began as Chinese in inspiration and appearance became Western in nearly every aspect in less than one hundred years. . . . By the end of the eighteenth century, the only relationship the Chinese export teapot had with China was its location of manufacture and the tea into which it breathed life.

And tea, after all, is where it all began. . . .

brewing tea

*Maldini, Irene, “Design History of European Tea Cups and Saucers,” Master’s thesis, University of Amsterdam, 2012.
Shirley Mueller, email, Sept. 9, 2016.
The Luxury of Tea and Coffee: Chinese Export Porcelain, Highlights from the Shirley M. Mueller Collection, by Shirley M. Mueller and R. Craig Miller, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana, 2016.
§Shirley Mueller, pers. comm., Sept. 2016.
**Mueller, Shirley Maloney, “Eighteenth-Century Chinese Export Porcelain Teapots: Fashion and Uniformity,” American Ceramic Circle Journal XIII:5–16, 2005.
Note: tea pictured above is Sumatra Barisan, available at

From China to Europe: The First Porcelain Teapots

The Shiny New Thing Everyone Wanted

When porcelain first reached their shore, sixteenth-century Europeans were utterly transfixed. What was it and how was it made? (Soon to be followed with “how can we make it?”)

To their eyes, hard paste porcelain had properties that were distinctly superior to those of stoneware, explained scholar Shirley Mueller as we examined her current exhibit of export Chinese porcelain at the Indianapolis Museum of Art:*

The very nature of porcelain (see previous post) allowed artisans to produce pieces with thin walls (even as thin as paper)—yet porcelain was stronger than stoneware!

Further, it didn’t break when hot water was poured into it, and when it chipped, it chipped cleanly. In fact, early on, some European artisans thought that this translucent substance was actually glass.

And, porcelain was less expensive than silver, Mueller added.

Perfect for 17th-century coffee and tea.

Which Led to Novel Adaptations . . .coffee pot made with Chinese vase

Around 1680, a resourceful Dutchman bravely drilled into an mid-1600s Chinese porcelain gourd vase and added gilt fittings (shown on right).

Voilà! The first porcelain coffee pot in the West!

. . . and a Burgeoning Market

And although the Chinese preferred using Yixing stoneware, they quickly responded to the European demand for porcelain tea ware. There was clearly great sales potential here—at least until the Europeans figured out how to make their own porcelain!

And indeed, millions of pieces of porcelain were imported by the Dutch East India Company alone. Porcelain served both as ballast on the ships (especially helpful since tea was relatively light in weight) and as profitable merchandise.

The First Porcelain Teapots

So China came up with designs specifically for the Western market, and initially produced export teapots of underglaze blue-and-white.

Underglaze painting had been developed in China centuries earlier, around 1000 AD. For blue-and-white ware, a white slip (a mixture of pigment, the components of the porcelain itself, and water) was first applied to the piece. Using imported cobalt, designs were then hand painted on the white ground—errors in painting could not be corrected—and the piece was fired. A glaze, which brought out the true color of the blue, was applied, and the piece was again fired, completing the process.

The example shown below is an underglaze blue-and-white teapot that dates to 1643 and features an Asian aesthetic. Its lid is a solid piece of porcelain, not pierced in any manner.Teapot, China 1643

Fine-Tuning Required

And here is where that liquid-absorbing property of Yixing stoneware (see my previous post) comes in.

As Mueller pointed out, the lids of Yixing pots did not generally have a vent to allow steam to escape because that wasn’t much of an issue. When hot water is poured into the pot, the pot itself absorbs some of the liquid.

But when hot water is poured into an impervious porcelain pot that does not have a perforated lid, there is nowhere for the steam to escape as the tea steeps. Hence, the hot liquid rises up the spout!

This, the Europeans definitely did not like.

Which Proved to Be a Nearly 100-year Process

But with communication between East and West a years-long affair, it took awhile—decades actually!—for improvements to be incorporated. 

Mueller—who has studied multiple examples of non-perforated, partially perforated, and perforated lids that date from 1643 to 1750—explained that there was no smooth progression from unvented to vented.§

Rather, it seems there was some confusion in China as to why the vent in the lid was needed, as evidenced by the existence of some lids with partial perforations. In these, the holes either do not go fully through or are mere pinpricks. This ineffectual venting would not have prevented the hot water from rising into the spout.

By 1750, however, most lids were vented for steam, thereby solving one problem.

So, Were There Other Complaints?

Well, there was that problem of tea leaves clogging in the spout . . .

In addition, the falling price of tea brought about other stylistic changes, while motifs became increasingly westernized.

All coming in my next posts!

*Pers. comm., Sept. 2016. Also, The Luxury of Tea and Coffee: Chinese Export Porcelain, Highlights from the Shirley M. Mueller Collection, by Shirley M. Mueller and R. Craig Miller, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana, 2016.
Malone, Laurence A., How to Mend Your Treasured Porcelain, China, Glass, and Pottery, pp. 104–105. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing, 1976.
Weiss, Bustav, The Book of Porcelain, translated by J. Seligman, New York: Praeger, 1971.
§Pers. comm., Sept. 2016. Also, Mueller, Shirley, “Lifting the Lid: Early Chinese Export Teapots,” Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society 71:89–93, 2006–2007. 

Tea Arrived in Europe—and Launched the Quest for the Perfect Teapot

Teacups and Teapots Are Everywhere!giant teacups on truck

Tea ware is fully embedded into our culture. After all, we immediately recognize a teacup, even when encountered very unexpectedly!

But in 17th-century Europe? Not So Much.

When the Dutch brought tea to Europe in the beginning of the 1600s, people knew they wanted it. After all, it was costly and rare and new.

But it was also met with some bafflement. What, exactly, do you do with the stuff?

So, as my previous post pointed out, the arrival of tea triggered a slew of new needs—including suitable teapots. Which didn’t yet exist in Europe.

– An Aside, or a Fortuitous Detour –

Jill with Shirley MuellerIn looking into this, I quite inadvertently initiated a chain reaction of my own!

When I downloaded a research article about tea ware, the author of that paper graciously invited me to see her exhibit of 1643–1790 Chinese export porcelain,* which resulted in my driving from Ann Arbor to Indianapolis—encountering the above teacups en route—and learning a great deal about early tea and coffee ware from scholar Shirley M. Mueller.

Europe: In Need of Teapots . . .

As we examined her collection at the Indianapolis Museum of Art, Mueller explained that although the Dutch East India Trading Company was ordering teapots from China by 1626, it wasn’t nearly as straightforward as we might think.

. . . but Not Like These . . . or Those . . . or Those

Initially, the Chinese weren’t quite sure how to make teapots for the European market. In fact, throughout the 1600s, they struggled to figure out what the Europeans wanted and needed. Feedback, after all, was a laborious process. Mueller pointed out that it took a year for a European ship to reach China; it typically spent a year there, and then took another year to return to Europe—a three-year turnaround!

stoneware teapot, 1680At the time, the Chinese generally brewed their tea in Yixing stoneware. These unglazed pots were porous, which meant that when hot water was poured into the pot, up to 4% of it was absorbed by the pot itself, Mueller explained.

Interestingly, this attribute was to have real repercussions for the export industry.

Further, although these stoneware teapots did make it to Europe and were even embellished, as in this example, this wasn’t really what the Europeans wanted!


China had long been producing ware that was made with petuntse, which contains quartz, and kaolin (from felsite). When these two substances are combined, they reinforce each other: the kaolin facilitates molding while the quartz contributes to the ware’s glassy and translucent surface.†

The Portuguese named this ware porcelain, evidently due to the “resemblance of the finish to a lovely, colorful, glossy tropical marine shell found in the Mediterranean area.”†  It was also called China-ware, meaning literally “ware from China,” later shortened to china. It also came to be called hard paste porcelain or true porcelain. Because Europe had not yet identified a source for petuntse and kaolin, they could not produce porcelain.

So What Did Europe Want in a Teapot?

Coming in my next post—and I guarantee that you won’t have to wait three years!

*The Luxury of Tea and Coffee: Chinese Export Porcelain, Highlights from the Shirley M. Mueller Collection, by Shirley M. Mueller and R. Craig Miller, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana, 2016.
†Malone, Laurence A., How to Mend Your Treasured Porcelain, China, Glass, and Pottery, p. 104. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing, 1976.

The Teaspoon: A Necessary Part of Having Tea

You get one new thing and bam—you’ve triggered an avalanche of new needs.

  • Play Pokémon GO? Gotta have a portable charger for when that elusive Dragonite actually hits your screen.
  • Found that perfect sofa? Guaranteed—any chair/coffee table/end table/lamp you already own won’t be quite right.
  • Having a baby? Just try to stop the flood of stuff that will enter your home for the next two decades!

So it was when tea hit Europe several centuries ago. People immediately needed all sorts of things they didn’t know they were going to need!

Introducing Tea: A Marketer’s Delight!

Tea instigated a plethora of requirements. Lockable tea caddies to store the pricey product and caddy spoons for measuring it out. Teapots and teacups and tea saucers. New words were necessary (“chinaware,” “porcelain”). Sugar in your tea? Call that spoon the “teaspoon”! And to display all these acquisitions: china cabinets! Not to mention tea carts, spoon holders, tea tables, and on and on.

Let’s Start with the Not-so-lowly Teaspoon

Although spoons have been used since the Paleolithic, the earliest ones were undoubtedly made of natural materials such as pieces of wood or shells—as suggested by our English spoon from Old English spon (from chip, as of wood) or the French cuillère (from Latin coclear, with the same root as cochlea, meaning snail, spiral).

First-century Romans designed two spoon types that they eventually brought northward into Britain. The custom stuck, and subsequent upper classes used precious metals to fashion spoons. For those who could afford it, a silver spoon was given to babies at their baptism (hence “born with a silver spoon”). By the 14th century, however, pewter spoons were commonplace, available more broadly.china teacup and saucer setting

The obvious usefulness of the spoon resulted in quite a variety of types, described by their composition, such as wooden or silver, or by their intended use, as in dessert, salt, sugar—or tea!

The spoon that was designated for stirring tea (sugar was added with the sugar spoon) made its first (known) appearance in print in the London Gazette in 1686—”three small gilt Tea Spoons.” 

Which Became a Unit of Measure

By 1731, a teaspoonful was used as a measurement: “not above a Tea Spoonful of Water” (Phil. Trans.). Robert Griffith’s 1859 A Universal Formulary gives the teaspoon as one fluidrachm, the dessert spoon as two fluidrachms, and a tablespoon as half a fluid ounce. (A fluidrachm or fluidram equals 1/8 of a fluid ounce in the imperial measure of the apothecary system.)

However, Griffith asserts that “the teaspoon is rated too low; they [these estimates] apply very well to the teaspoon formerly used, but not to the much larger kind now in general use, which approaches the dessertspoon in capacity.” 

And indeed, both the size of the teacup and the size of that teaspoon for stirring the tea had increased—concomitant with falling tea prices. By the 1730s, a teaspoon was 1/3 of a tablespoon.

While Still Remaining an Item of Status

spoon holder or spooner (?)Although the price of tea had come down, “tea” and its accouterments were still a way to signal your social position. Early Victorians put their teaspoons in a spoon holder or a spooner—oftentimes similar to a coverless sugar bowl—displaying both their spoons and their status. In the later 1800s, silver commemorative and souvenir spoons became a fad, another indicator of rank.

Social norms were paramount. In his Manual of Social and Business Forms of 1888, Thomas Hill advises that tea be “gently sipped from the spoon or cup, taking cup and spoon in hand . . . when drinking,” and he thoughtfully illustrates proper hand and finger position. In fact, he cautions that “the spoon should never be removed from the cup when the guest is satisfied with its contents” because a spoon that is placed next to a cup that still contains tea means there is a problem!

Today’s Oh-so-lowly Teaspoon

Nowadays, spoons—teaspoons or otherwise—are utilitarian drudges. We carelessly set them anywhere on the saucer or plate or table, ascribing no meaning to their placement. The capacity of a “teaspoon” in a flatware set in the U.S. varies wildly, requiring the use of measuring teaspoons for cooking and baking. And a teaspoon is used only incidentally for actually stirring tea.

In our home, a teaspoon is never used for its original purpose—drinking tea, as we do, without sugar or milk! However, we find our tea measuring spoon to be indispensable! It easily measures out bulky tea, and although it is not called a caddy spoon, it fulfills that same purpose—and does indeed serve as a true TEA spoon.

measuring spoon for tea

COMING UP: A look at some of that other must-have teaware!
Note: tea measuring spoon is pictured with Le Touareg tea, both available at

An Amazing Tea Table, with or without Tea

When you write about tea, it seems you see the word everywhere, even when you are not looking for it. Last week, my family and I were in upstate New York, visiting Letchworth State Park with its many trails and spectacular Genesee River gorge and waterfalls, and really not thinking about tea in the least.


But then, while driving through the park, we spotted this sign. Curious, we stopped to find out what the “tea table” was.

tea table sign with backgd

Not an actual table, it turns out. Nor was any tea available.

Rather, this region was called Tea Table Rock because flat sandstone once overhung the deep river gorge, providing the perfect “table” on which to sit and take in both the view and some refreshments. As the interpretive sign puts it,  this was the place to “picnic or have ‘a spot of tea.'”

Now a “spot of tea” could mean an actual cup of tea, or tea along with sandwiches, or simply the sandwiches—but any excuse to sit and linger in a pretty place works for me!

However, that jutting sandstone slab no longer exists. Today’s visitors stand on more solid ground, delineated by utilitarian fences and by picturesque stone walls built long ago by the CCC.

But picnickers are faced with a dizzying choice of amazing stone picnic (or tea!) tables!

Some, like this table nestled in a stand of mature trees, captivate—inviting a cozy tea break.

table 1 crop bkgdOthers, like this giant slab, stand ready to host an entire party!alissa at table bkgd

So although we were nearly 400 miles from home, we felt welcomed. Yes, parks belong to everyone and, yes, picnic tables everywhere invite us to sit awhile and enjoy a meal. But there is something about “tea table” that feels particularly special—that draws us in, that encourages us to converse and enjoy each other’s company, that begs us to appreciate anew the surrounding loveliness.

We had our spot of tea sans actual tea. But there was lots of conversation and plenty of terrific scenery and an incredible table! Everything that the “Tea Table Area” promises.

Bergamot Oil: The Essence of Earl Grey Tea

Bergamot, of Earl Grey Tea Fame

Citrus bergamia, Köhler’s Medicinal Plants

Bergamot (Citrus bergamia)—the essence of Earl Grey tea—has been grown in Italy for ages, although the plant may have originated in Berga in Catalonia, northeast Spain, where the Bergistani were an Iberian tribe overtaken by the Romans, and possibly the source of the bergamot name.

We do know that bergamot has been grown in Calabria in southwest Italy for centuries. Although this region was ruled by many powerful peoples in antiquity, such as the Greeks and Arabs, it remained fairly isolated, which allowed its subsistence culture and customs to be maintained and eventually documented.

Thus, we know that bergamot was grown for its wood at first (to make snuff boxes), and then, in the early 1700s, was cultivated for its fruit and peel, used in perfumes.

The Calabrians also used bergamot to heal wounds; to reduce fever; and as an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anti-parasitic. And many of these traditional medicinal uses have been validated by modern medicine.

Bergamot, of Value beyond Tea

As far as bergamot oil (extracted from the fruit’s peel) and bergamot juice go, they are valuable for myriad reasons, especially because bergamot has both a unique composition of beneficial flavonoids and a lot of them. (Flavonoids are also abundant in tea leaves.) In research studies, bergamot has been shown to:

  • Decrease total cholesterol and triglyceride levels (as statins do) while increasing high-density lipoprotein, a bonus.
  • Play a role in decreasing cancer cell growth, including liver cancer cells.
  • Act as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiseptic.
  • Promote wound healing.
  • Play a part in UVB-induced oxidative stress and photoaging and therefore may be valuable in skin-care products.
  • Protect the function of neurons and reduce damage to neurons.
  • With morphine, work to alleviate chronic pain.
  • Alleviate anxiety and depression.
  • Modulate markers of autophagy and thus may be valuable for drug development.

Earl Grey Is Not Earl Grey without the Bergamot

Bergamot has long been added to tea, with researchers finding that it was added to tea as early as 1824. However, it originally was used to doctor up low-quality tea. But somewhere along the way, the flavor was embraced and the blend of black tea and bergamot oil stood on its own merits.

Today, there are various blends of Earl Grey tea, including the traditional blend, green tea versions, and first-flush Darjeeling-based. TeaHaus offers its unique Haus-blend version that adds lavender, rosemary, and rose blossoms to the mix!

Note, however,  that a high-quality Earl Grey does not taste like orange (the bergamot orange itself has a very bitter taste), nor does it depend on flavor crystals. Rather, an excellent Earl Grey is made with bergamot oil, which is extracted from the fruit’s peel—and this unique combination of tea and oil offers plenty of health benefits!

–Di Donna, L. et al. “Hypocholesterolaemic activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl flavanones enriched fraction from bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): ‘In vivo’ studies,” Journal of Functional Foods 7:558–68. 2014.
–”Earl Grey tea,” The Foods of England Project.
–”Early Grey: The results of the OED appeal on Earl Grey tea,” OED Appeals, Oxford University Press.
–Filocamo, Angela, et al. “In vitro effect of bergamot (Citrus bergamia) juice against cag A-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15:256. 2016.
–Filomena, L., et al. “Inhibition of spinal oxidative stress by bergamot polyphenolic fraction attenuates the development of morphine induced tolerance and hyperalgesia in mice,”  PLoS ONE 11(5). 2016.
–”Investigators at University of Messina detail findings in hepatocellular carcinoma (NF-kappa B mediates the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of bergamot juice in HepG2 cells),” Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week 5 Mar. 2016:1123. 2016.
–Passalacqua, N. G., De Fine, G., and Guarrera, P. M. “Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy),” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2:52. 2006.
–”Researchers from University of Catanzaro Magna Graecia describe findings in chromosome structures (Telomere and telomerase modulation by bergamot polyphenolic fraction In experimental photoageing in human keratinocytes),” Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week 7 Nov. 2015:1703. 2016.
–Russo, R., et al. “Role of D-limonene in autophagy induced by bergamot essential oil in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells,” PLoS ONE 9(11). 2014.

Interpreting Tea History

As a recent report by the BBC illustrates, tea’s history is not nearly as healthy as the drink itself.

Great Britain brought the tea industry to India and changed the world—an accomplishment complicated by the many ways to view the events and the participants. For example:

What’s the Real Aim Here?

Robert Fortune, who, in the 1800s, brought viable, high-quality tea plants—along with Chinese tea implements and manufacturers—to India, has been regarded both as savvy, dedicated botanist and as first-class thief.

Were his motives altruistic—as when he avers that “a boon will have been conferred upon the people of India” if that country’s poor could be provided with an affordable tea, which is healthy and has “great value in the market” (Fortune 1853)?

Or, were these just pretty words, masking Great Britain’s calculated aim to break China’s monopoly of the tea trade, ostensibly to make it affordable for more consumers in Great Britain (aka to make more money?)?

And What’s the Real Aim Here?

In his vivid account of his travels in China, Fortune describes how “coloured green tea” was produced for the Europeans and Americans because they favored “uniform and pretty” leaves (Fortune 1853). Well, and there’s that added benefit—colored tea commanded more money in these markets.

The Incidental Consequences

The recipe for colored tea was troubling: Four parts gypsum powder (think fertilizer, plaster) to three parts Prussian blue (iron ferrocyanide, actually not toxic) powder. This powder mixture was combined with the tea leaves several minutes before the leaves were removed from the roasting pans.

While an 1857 article published in Edinburgh and London (in the magazine Titan) complains about non-tea leaves being mixed in with genuine tea leaves, perhaps they should have instead been concerned with those colorants! Indeed, Fortune (1853) calculates that “in every hundred pounds of coloured green tea consumed in England or America, the consumer actually drinks more than half a pound of Prussian blue and gypsum!”

Still, Tea Confers Many Benefits (Maybe)

Ah well. At least everyone seems to have agreed at this point in history that drinking tea itself was a good thing. Because it “is a great promoter of the amenities and charities of life. Even, commercially, its influence is of this nature, since it brings together distant countries, and unites them, through the fraternal bonds of commerce. This again dispels those prejudices which mock and degrade the human understanding, and gives to millions of people mutual sympathies and interest” (Titan 1857).

Right. . . .

Okay, but there’s this:  “by dispelling dyspeptic clouds and other noxious vapours which ascend to the brain . . . [tea] causes the benignant rays of cheerfulness and good-humour to shed happiness and peace” (Titan 1857).

Alternately, those positive effects could simply result from the “clatter of cups, and the mere occupation of drinking” (Titan 1857). . . .

However, “we leave it with our reader to determine whether it was this merely, or not rather the enlivening influence of the warm liquor, which put every one on good terms with himself, through the mediation of his stomach, by neutralising the acid juices . . . and so induced him to regard his next neighbour as a ‘decidedly more agreeable person’ than had been at first supposed” (Titan 1857). Yes, well. . . .

The Take-Away

Although some things strike us as humorous today, this history interpretation thing is difficult, and it’s far too easy to evaluate past actions solely with twenty-first-century eyes, or to think in simplistic terms.

Yet our history—the shared history of humankind—ought to inform our current thinking and decision-making. So when you next drink a cup of tea, perhaps, as Justin Rowlatt of the BBC suggests, “take a moment to reflect on the momentous global interactions that made the drink you are enjoying possible.”

lung ching  leaves

–Fortune, Robert. Tea Countries of China and the British Tea Plantations in the Himalaya, 3rd ed. London: John Murray, 1853.
–”Our tea table,” Titan, A Monthly Magazine, Vol. XXIV. Edinburgh: James Hogg; London: R. Groombridge and Sons, 1857.
–Rowlatt, Justin. “The dark history behind India and the UK’s favourite drink.” BBC News. July 15, 2016.